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外匯保證金、CFD差價合約

CFD - 差价合约

Alpari Limited, Suite 305, Griffith Corporate Centre, Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, is incorporated under registered number 20389 IBC 2012 by the Registrar of International Business 外匯保證金、CFD差價合約 Companies, registered by the Financial Services Authority of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

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差价合约和外汇保证金的关系

差价合约起源于1990年代初的伦敦,瑞银华宝公司的Jon Wood 和Brian Keelan凭借信用以保证金的方式尝试了股权互换交易方式,之后就发展成为了差价合约,最初只是大机构用来规避证券风险的工具。而将差价合约引入零售交易的是一家名为GNI – Gerrard & NationalIntercommodities的公司。该公司通过旗下的在线交易系统GNI Touch 为零售市场引入了差价合约交易,GNI的交易系统允许其客户在线直接进入LSE(伦敦证交所)。

这是零售差价合约真正意义上的起点。从这里开始,零售市场接受差价合约交易。在这之后,IG Markets以及CMC Markets同样作为差价合约最早期的参与者在2000年开始对这项服务进行推广。

差价合约的主要特点是采用保证金的交易方式,可以双向交易,无交割日限制,交易成本低廉等等,它简单灵活的操作方式和高杠杆的便利性受到了零售交易者们的欢迎,但是不可忽视的是其中也蕴藏着巨大的风险,时至今日,差价合约已经成为国际上十分流行的投资方式。

以股票为标的物——股票CFD:包括美股、港股、欧股等等。股票CFD按佣金收费而不是按点差收费,单份合约一般等于一股股票,所以说,交易股票CFD与在国际股市上交易股票极其类似,但是做空股票CFD的过程比做空股票要简单。

以股指为标的物——指数CFD:包括英国富时100指数、道琼斯指数、纳斯达克指数、华尔街指数等等。指数CFD是按照标的股价指数每点变动对应一定现金金额并以当地货币购买合约的交易形式。例如每份英国富时100指数(FTSE 100)合约定价为富时指数每点变动10英镑(£10),也可以使用定价为2英镑(£2)的迷你指数CFD等等。

以商品为标的物——商品CFD:商品的投资者对象涵盖比较广泛,从类似铜之类的矿物,黄金、白银之类的贵金属,石油、天然气之类的能源到大豆、小麦、玉米等农作物,都可以作为商品CFD的标的物。由于近年来全球对现存有限的资源关注度日益高涨,不仅是农作物,黄金、原油等商品价格及其影响因素消息(比如说国际政治事件等)在日常生活中也很容易会接触到,投资者会觉得它们的价格变动更容易把握。

以汇率为标的物——外汇CFD:最后的外汇CFD,外汇CFD当中就包括我们十分熟悉的外汇保证金交易,或者说是外汇货币对。

在欧盟以及FCA的监管体系当中,由于许可制度的不同,差价合约下仍有单独的监管授权,滚动式即期外汇合约(Rolling Spot Forex Contract,也是我们平时所说的外汇保证金交易)就是其中的一种。

在银行间外汇市场,两个营业日内交割的外汇交易被称为是外汇即期交易。外汇保证金交易也是在即期外汇交易的基础上衍生出来的,也就是说投资者所看到的报价都是基于即期外汇的报价。

不过,即期外汇交易是要进行交割的,而外汇保证金交易并不进行交割,这就涉及到一个“展期”的概念,展期交割是指在外汇或货币市场上,将原有的交割日向后延展,称之为展期。而外汇保证金是通过不停地展期来完成的,也就是“滚动式(Rolling)”。

因此,外汇保证金交易是以即期外汇的报价,通过不停地展期,所提供的一种外汇差价合约。投资者只需存放部分保证金在经纪商处,经纪商会计算货币对开仓与平仓之间的差额,为正,则经纪商支付差额给交易者;为负,则经纪商收取差额。同时,这种差额变动是实时计算的,支付的差额达到一定程度,经纪商则会强制平仓。

除了这些基本的知识点,还要提醒大家的是,差价合约交易是一种高风险、高收益的产品,尤其是杠杆越高的风险也会相应越高,差价合约产品只适合想要进行投机,尤其是短期投机的,有经验的投资者,可能并不适合所有的人。

外汇交易与CFD差价合约交易的相同点、不同点以及在线交易获利的机遇

外汇交易与CFD差价合约交易的相同点与不同点1

正是这种差异才给交易者带来了盈利或者亏损。一切都很简单。交易者开单进行买入交易,资产价格走高,交易者获利。而如果他们开单交易卖出,则会亏钱。情况反过来也一样:交易者进行卖出交易,资产价格走跌,交易者获利。如果资产价格上涨,则交易者会蒙受损失。
这里顺便说一下,对于采用这种无本金交割方式进行交易的交易员来说,这么做还有一个巨大的好处,就是他们不仅可以在价格涨势时获得利润,价格走跌时同样也可以赚到钱。毕竟,你能够有机会出售某公司的全部股份,或者同样的百万桶原油,而不需要实际拥有这些股份或者原油。假如价格暴跌为零,你将获得巨额利润。
换句话说,金融工具(或金融资产)这种无本金交割交易就是交易者与经纪商之间签订的一种合约,也可说成是一种合法的投注。在这个过程中:
- 由交易者来确定资产价格的转移方向(是买入或是卖出);
- 如果方向确定正确,经纪商将向交易者支付资产在开盘时与收盘时的价格差额;
- 如果交易者在方向确定上犯了错,那蒙受损失的将是交易者,他要向经纪商支付相应的价格差。